Definition[ edit ] Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association as "the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. From a sales process engineering perspective, marketing is "a set of processes that are interconnected and interdependent with other functions" of a business aimed at achieving customer interest and satisfaction. The Chartered Institute of Marketing defines marketing as "the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.
Organizational growth strategies, 04 analyzing the marketing environment management, individual and organizational learning, change management, competency-based management, and organizational culture and leadership.
This blog examines two relevant organizational diagnostic models, and compares and contrast their application and usefulness to support the implementation of OD interventions.
The six-box modela very popular and easy to use model centers the diagnostic analysis on six organizational factors: The second model, the sharp-image diagnostic, develops specific models to fit the characteristics of the intervention.
The model includes four steps to scan the organization and identify critical areas for closer examination. Both diagnostic models derive from the action research approach, and involve clients across the process to obtain adequate commitment and support to subsequent implementation and measuring stages.
Surrounding the six box model is the environment, although it is not included in the model. For each dimension, the model includes specific questions. Then, participants find the causes of dissatisfaction in the six elements of the model.
Internal producers are the key decision makers to solve those areas of dissatisfaction. Harrisom and Shirom describe that the model center on the identification of gaps. The leadership dimension positioned in the center is connected to the other five factors, because Weisbord sustains that leaders play a critical role in the organizational effectiveness.
However, the simplicity of the model is also a disadvantage, because the model lacks a solid theoretical foundation to determine the real existence of gaps, and their degree of influence over the whole organizational effectiveness.
Furthermore, the model fails to provide a solid course of action to close identified gaps given the internal arguments of dissatisfaction. Sharp-image diagnosis model Harrisom and Shirom combine the open-systems and political frames with a more sharply focused model to conduct an organizational diagnostic.
The sharp-image diagnosis model employs two or more theoretical perspectives to analyze the underlying causes of identified problems or challenges, and their interrelations with other subsystems.
The sharp-image diagnosis includes four critical steps: The first step helps to identify data related to the organizational problems or challenges, analyzing relations between consultants and clients, and cultural traits of the focal organization. The data gathering process is conducted using the open systems frame, the analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats SWOTand the analysis of stakeholders.
In the second step, OD practitioners prioritize organizational problems or challenges to maximize the impact and benefits of the intervention, focusing on the more important areas, and examining links with other socio-technical systems.
In the third step practitioners develop a model tailored to the needs of the intervention. In the fourth step of the sharp image diagnosis model, OD practitioners provide feedback to clients focusing on ways to minimize inefficiencies, cope with challenges, and increase organizational effectiveness.
One of the main limitations of sharp-image diagnosis is what at the same time constitutes its main strength: The sharp-image diagnostic model requires experienced OD practitioners to develop customize diagnostic models, targeted to the objective, needs, timeframe and other characteristics of the OD intervention, and the organization.
Additionally, OD practitioners play an active role in the feedback process to help clients better understand the diagnostic results, and advice them on a OD intervention to produce maximum results.
Main similarities Both, the six-box model and the sharp image model are based on the action research model. The focus on inefficiencies to center the diagnostic is another area if similarity between the two models.
The sharp image diagnosis model scans the whole organization in search of gaps or challenges, including the internal and external interrelated elements. Although the environment is illustrated in the six-box model, the analysis of factors external to the organizations is excluded.
Application and usefulness OD diagnostic models draw from the action research practice, where clients are involved and take an active role in the different stages of the diagnosis process, including the definition of objectives, stakeholders, activities, and timeframe to gather and analyze data.
The role of the OD practitioner is paramount to guide clients in the organizational assessment process, including the selection of the diagnostic model, the definition of activities, the feedback of results and the implementation of following actions to improve organizational effectiveness and individual and organizational development.
To support my argument I will use the selection of the diagnostic model, although the sharp-image diagnosis has more advantages over the six-box model, sharp-image may appear too complicated to understand on clients looking for a short-term and focused approach, then OD consultants may guide clients on the advantages and disadvantages of each model.
By increasing client participation in the diagnosis process, OD practitioners also increase the application and usefulness of the diagnostic intervention, since clients will better understand the identified gaps and areas to focus further implementation interventions.
Moreover, consultants must use a valid feedback model that allows the communication of results in a non threatening way. Harrisom and Shirom state that good diagnosis models help clients increase their understanding of the organizational gaps that require attention, and the required resources to better focus change interventions.
The authors consider a good diagnostic model specifies its level of analysis, its limits, the interaction between variables, effectiveness criteria, and evaluative standards.
Additionally, the authors emphasize that diagnosis models must analyze the internals and externals of the organization, reflecting macro contingencies and macro processes to support the managing of change, and increase organizational effectiveness. The sharp-image diagnosis model uses four steps, and customized models to gather, analyze, and channel data to clients.
Despite their differences, both models derive from the action research field that employs a systematic process to gather, and analyze data, to later implement corrective actions to eliminate ineffective areas. The study of organizational diagnosis models is paramount for OD practitioners, because diagnostic models help to reveal key organizational gaps, and critical areas to focus.
Moreover, this analysis emphasized the role of the OD practitioner as an advisor, helping clients identify the most appropriate diagnostic model -given the intervention objectives, and the organizational culture, and using feedback mechanisms to channel results in a non-threatening mode to later focus targeted OD interventions at the effective management of change, and the improvement of the organizational effectiveness.
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