Allied troops in VladivostokAugustduring the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War While most historians trace the origins of the Cold War to the period immediately following World War II, others argue that it began with the October Revolution in Russia in when the Bolsheviks took power. Since the time of the formation of the soviet republics, the states of the world have divided into two camps: There — in the camp of capitalism — national enmity and inequality, colonial slavery, and chauvinism, national oppression and pogroms, imperialist brutalities and wars.
What is the reason?
What are the specific mechanisms at work? The usual assumption among non-researchers about why diets fail is that when a dieter regains weight, it must be because they stopped dieting, which is in turn attributed to things like not having enough willpower, personal and moral failure, gluttony and laziness, or being too ignorant to know better.
These are assumptions which reflect the mythology of our culture: This story centres the individual, their behaviour, their character traits, and their moral attributes as the cause of fatness in the first place, and the reason why weight is regained following a diet.
But these explanations are not satisfactory to me, nor, as you will see, are they reflected in the scientific literature. To explore other answers, I haphazardly gathered peer-reviewed articles, spanning a range of more than 30 years, that investigated or discussed the various reasons why weight loss produced by dieting is not maintained long-term.
Here is what they theorize about why diets fail. However, the researchers tended not to lean so heavily on moral explanations for this relapse.
One study suggested that the fault lay with lack of scholarly attention to the maintenance phase of behavioural change in designing weight loss plans. This was further complicated by the fact that no one can avoid eating entirely, which makes dieting quite different from other behavioural interventions like smoking cessation programs and abstinence from alcohol.
Alongside this were proposed cultural and commercial pressures to eat, especially calorie-rich and highly palatable foods. There also appeared to be few natural rewards provided by dieting once the intervention phase ended — apparently nothing, not even thinness, feels as good as food tastes. The researchers were not very optimistic about the usefulness of dieting if it only resulted in regaining weight.
An illuminating quote from the conclusion of one paper: But an interesting quote from this same article hints of more than purely behavioural factors: These habits need not be as bad as pretreatment habits to cause regain, because metabolic factors may make it easier to regain after a period of dietary restriction…The pattern of relapse and regain appears to be the result of a war between the will and physiologic demands over which self-control appears relatively powerless.
Lowered energy expenditure Reduced calorie intake and weight loss, it turns out, cause some interesting changes to the body that result in expending fewer calories. In animal studieschanges include decreased body temperature, less spontaneous activity, and lowered resting metabolic rate the amount of energy the body uses while at rest.
Reduced total energy expenditure and, possibly, lowered resting metabolic rate after diet-induced weight loss have also been observed in humans. Conversely, humans who gain weight above their baseline weight through eating have been observed to have an increased resting metabolic rate.
A person who gains weight would be expected to expend more energy just due to their increased body mass, thus requiring more energy to physically move and biologically maintain it. The same, but in reverse, is true for someone who loses weight — less energy is required to maintain a smaller body.
In other words, a person who lost weight to reach lbs.ABSTRACT. The assessment of seed vigor has many important implications to the seed industry as a basic monitoring of seed physiological potential during different phases of seed production and a support for strategic decisions regarding the selection of high quality seedlots to meet the consumer demand.
Well, in the early days of the Cold War itself, American historians would have answered, nearly unanimously, that the Soviets started the Cold War.
Joseph Stalin was an evil dictator, propelled by an evil communist ideology to attempt world domination. Brief Overview Postwar Tension.
In many ways, the Cold War began even before the guns fell silent in Germany and in the Pacific in Suspicion and mistrust had defined U.S.-Soviet relations for decades and resurfaced as soon as the alliance against Adolf Hitler was no longer necessary.
What caused the Cold War? A number of geopolitical factors that emerged in the wake of the Second World War, pitting Russia against the U.S.
World War II ended with the Soviet Union and United States as allies that triumphed over Nazi Germany. update: The convergence of the cold war history of mind control and electromagnetic weapons with new post cold war government neuroscience research programs.
The best way to describe this pathway to the lay public is to explain this is how evolution allows for ideal form to meet function in a tough environment.