Artificial intelligence and its characteristics

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Artificial intelligence and its characteristics

Machines capable of playing chess have fascinated people since the latter half of the 18th century, when the Turk, the first of the pseudo-automatons, began a triumphal exhibition tour of Europe.

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Like its 19th-century successor Ajeeb, the Turk was a cleverly constructed cabinet… What is intelligence? All but the simplest human behaviour is ascribed to intelligence, while even the most complicated insect behaviour is never taken as an indication of intelligence.

What is the difference? Consider the behaviour of the digger waspSphex ichneumoneus. When the female wasp returns to her burrow with food, she first deposits it on the thresholdchecks for intruders inside her burrow, and only then, if the coast is clear, carries her food inside.

Intelligence—conspicuously absent in the case of Sphex—must include the ability to adapt to new circumstances. Psychologists generally do not characterize human intelligence by just one trait but by the combination of many diverse abilities. Research in AI has focused chiefly on the following components of intelligence: Learning There are a number of different forms of learning as applied to artificial intelligence.

The simplest is learning by trial and error.

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For example, a simple computer program for solving mate-in-one chess problems might try moves at random until mate is found. The program might then store the solution with the position so that the next time the computer encountered the same position it would recall the solution.

This simple memorizing of individual items and procedures—known as rote learning—is relatively easy to implement on a computer. More challenging is the problem of implementing what is called generalization.


Generalization involves applying past experience to analogous new situations. Reasoning To reason is to draw inferences appropriate to the situation. Inferences are classified as either deductive or inductive. Inductive reasoning is common in sciencewhere data are collected and tentative models are developed to describe and predict future behaviour—until the appearance of anomalous data forces the model to be revised.

Deductive reasoning is common in mathematics and logicwhere elaborate structures of irrefutable theorems are built up from a small set of basic axioms and rules.

There has been considerable success in programming computers to draw inferences, especially deductive inferences. However, true reasoning involves more than just drawing inferences; it involves drawing inferences relevant to the solution of the particular task or situation.

This is one of the hardest problems confronting AI. Problem solving Problem solving, particularly in artificial intelligence, may be characterized as a systematic search through a range of possible actions in order to reach some predefined goal or solution.

Problem-solving methods divide into special purpose and general purpose. A special-purpose method is tailor-made for a particular problem and often exploits very specific features of the situation in which the problem is embedded.Characterising Artificial Intelligence technology for international transfer.

Artificial intelligence and its characteristics

Authors; Authors and affiliations; This paper identifies and discusses the main characteristics of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology from the point of view of international technology transfer.

Artificial intelligence technology. Artificial intelligence: Artificial intelligence, the ability of a computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings.

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The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems with the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experiences. The Sentient Machine: The Coming Age of Artificial Intelligence [Amir Husain] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

The future is now. Acclaimed technologist and inventor Amir Husain explains how we can live amidst the coming age of sentient machines and artificial intelligence. In recent years, artificial intelligence has left the machine room and entered the world of mainstream business. Within the next five years, AI will have a major impact in all industries, according to research conducted by BCG and MIT Sloan Management Review.

The research found that more than 70% of executives expect AI to play a significant role at their companies. Examples of Artificial Intelligence 1. Smartphones. If you are reading this article, you most probably own a smartphone.

Heck, if I have to make a guess, I would say that most of you guys are reading this article on a smartphone. Chapter Expert Systems and Applied Artificial Intelligence. What is Artificial Intelligence? The field of artificial intelligence (AI) is concerned with methods of developing systems that display aspects of intelligent behaviour.

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