Minerals - Descriptions, photos, articles, properties and uses for common minerals. Rocks Rocks - Galleries of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rock photos with descriptions.
Divides time into Eons, Eras, Periods, and Epochs Law of Superposition — states that younger layers are on top, older layers on the bottom. Any time period may be recognized by its fossil content. Geosphere — solid earth.
Closed System- energy moves in and out, but matter does not enter or leave. Subsystems -Hydrologic Cycle — connects hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere. Asthenosphere - Has a thin upper layer that experiences melting and is therefore weaker.
This upper layer allows the asthenosphere to remain separate from the overlying lithosphere. Metamorphic - New rocks formed from existing sedimentary or igneous or metamorphic rocks that are subjected to heat and pressure.
Identical fossil organisms are evident in both South America and Africa. Glossopteris — a fossil subpolar plant with large seeds and tongue-shaped leaves unlikely to become airborne. Mesosaurus - an aquatic reptile that lived during the Permian about mya. Lystrosaurus- a land-living reptile.
Matching mountain ranges in the U. Paleoclimatic research had showed evidence of glacial striations in bedrock, suggesting a glacial period in the late Paleozoic mya in S. America, Australia and India. Paleomagnetism - The Earth has a magnetic field, similar to the magnetic field of a bar magnet.
Early studies of rock magnetism suggested that either the locations of the magnetic poles moved over time, or the rocks moved. Approximately million years ago the continents were joined together to form Pangaea.
The continents have since separated to their current configuration. The gravitational forces of the Moon and Sun were the driving force that moved the continents.
Larger continents broke through the oceanic crust, plowing their way along. Continents do not plow, or break, through the ocean floor.
Tidal energies are not sufficient to power the movement of continents. The concepts of continental drift and seafloor spreading were combined, and byhad become what is known as the Theory of Plate Tectonics. Continental crust is stretched and thinned by opposing tectonic forces; upwelling magma beneath causes the landscape to upwarp; brittle crustal rocks fragment, settle, and form a topographic depression.
This type of boundary is also called a Subduction zone. Oceanic trenches are the surface representation of a subduction zone.
Types of convergent boundaries include: Oceanic — Continental Oceanic — Oceanic Continental - Continental Convergent Boundary Oceanic — Continental When dense oceanic and less dense continental lithospheric plates collide, the oceanic plate will dive beneath the continental plate.
Partial melting of the oceanic plate occurs within the upper mantle. The melt really a mushbeing less dense than the surrounding mantle, rises toward the surface, in some instances resulting in continental volcanic arcs.
Partial melting will occur, much as with Oceanic — Continental boundaries, however, resultant volcanic activity may produce Island Arcs.
Islands in an arc tend to be spaced 80 km apart.
The low density of both continental lithospheric masses results in a collision, deforming sediments and rocks along the margins of each land mass, resulting in mountain building. The collision of the Australian-Indian plate with the Eurasian plate caused the formation of the Himalayas Suture — where two continental crusts meet.
Transform Fault Boundaries - forms when two tectonic plates slide past one another. There is no destruction or production of the lithosphere along a transform fault boundary. Transform faults are most common on the seafloor, in spreading center fracture zones, but there are some that cut across continental crust.
The mantle plume causes partial melting of mantle rocks and, as these melts rise, melting of the overlying oceanic plate rocks. A hot spot is an area less than a few hundred kilometers across and characterized by volcanism, high heat flow, and subtle crustal uplift.
Mantle Convection Convective heat transfer is a major mode of transferring heat, and convection is also a mode of transferring mass. In a cyclical manner, material is heated, rises, eventually cools, sinks down and is re-heated.
The mantle is solid, but hot and weak enough to permit convective flow.Geology Lab Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter 1 – Physical Properties and Minerals Moh’s Hardness Scale: Diamond 10 Quartz 7 Talc 1 Finger – Penny – Glass Plate – Streak plate – 7 Chapter 2 – Igneous Rocks Intrusive: Inside of the Earth/fast cooling/fine grained Extrusive Surface of Earth/slow cooling/big crystals Classifications: .
Physical Geology Exam 1 Study Guide Geology – (“geo”-earth, “logos”-discourse/study) -Physical Geology – focuses understanding of earth materials.
-Historical Geology – study’s the origin of earth. 6th Grade Science Geology Unit Information Milestones Domain/Weight: Geology 40% Geology Study/Resource Guide Content from Frameworks: Geology Content from the Frameworks Prerequisites: Elementary Standards for Geology Summarizer, place students in one of three differentiated groups.
View Test Prep - Geology Study Guide 1 from GEOL at Rio Hondo College. GEOLOGY STUDY GUIDE: EXAM 1 CH. 1, 3, 4, 5 Chapter 1: Origin of the Universe Singularity the .
The Geology Book — Study Guide .. 3 Formed by broken rock pushed up higher on one side than the other. Photographs and information for a large collection of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.