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Wallace Stegner 1 In St. Here, as in any moderately well-functioning natural ecosystem, are to be seen the Foundations of the Land Ethic -- but not obviously or immediately. They are seen through eyes, and interpreted through a mind, seasoned, informed, concentrated, and therefore extraordinarily acute -- the sort of perception and insights that Leopold acquired over his brilliant career and left to us in his splendid prose.
Ecological science has wrought a change in the mental eye. It has disclosed origins and functions for what to Boone were only facts. It has disclosed mechanisms for what to Boone were only attributes We may safely say that, as compared with the competent ecologist of the present day, Boone saw only the surface of things Thus we can appreciate that while the wolf is the enemy of the deer, it is the friend of the deer-species.
The deer owes its fleet foot and sensitive ear to its predators, and the wolf owes its keen nose and stealth to its prey. But who can better express this than Leopold himself: When we see land as a community to which we belong, we may begin to use it with love and respect.
It implies respect for his fellow-members, and also respect for the community as such. A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community.
It is wrong when it tends otherwise. It is, I must say, an attempt which has drawn considerable critical fire from traditional philosophers see note 16, below. THE NATURALISTIC FALLACY Leopold seems never to have doubted that the concepts and theoretical constructs of ecology had ethical implications -- that from the empirical knowledge gained from the observation of life communities, one could draw clear inferences as to how humans should behave toward those communities and their component organisms -- namely, as "plain citizens" of that community.
In a strict sense, I submit that the analytic philosophers are correct: Accordingly, one cannot derive "oughts" from "is-es," values from facts, prescriptions from descriptions.
Philosophers have come to call such attempts "the naturalistic fallacy.
One means of avoiding the naturalistic fallacy is to locate implicit value concepts among the premises, or to deliberately introduce normative statements to the premises. By so doing, scientific statements, which can yield no ethical conclusions by themselves, might prove crucial in the justification of ethical principles and commitments.
The first, "ecology," has its origin in the life sciences. The second, "holism," is a theory of knowledge which emerges from ecology, and which is crucial both to that science and to the moral philosophy which it supports.
The third premise suggests an ethical "model" or metaphor, "health," which applies to both the ecosystem and to its component, our species.
The fourth premise, "affirmation," identifies the sentiment and provides the motivation to make the condition and fate of nature a matter of our personal moral concern and responsibility.
The Ecosystem is a systemic whole, of which human beings are a part. This maxim, ignored throughout most of the history of Western civilization, has recently become common knowledge.
It has echoed throughout the world, even within the walls of the Kremlin, as Mikhail Gorbachov proclaimed: As we study this functional-systemic science of nutrient recycling, of energy throughput, of information exchange, of interacting niches, and of trophic pyramids, the metaphor of "health" becomes irresistible, as the ecologist identifies varying degrees of robustness, diversity, integration and stability of the subject life-communities.
However, confined to the context of ecological science, the concept of "health" is value-neutral.LAND SERVICES FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION COMPANIES.
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The Holy Earth: The Birth of a New Land Ethic [Liberty Hyde Bailey, John Linstrom, Wendell Berry] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The agrarian tradition runs as an undercurrent through the entire history of literature, carrying the age-old wisdom that the necessary access of independent farmers to their own land both requires the responsibility of good stewardship and.
A land ethic is a philosophy or theoretical framework about how, ethically, humans should regard the land. The term was coined by Aldo Leopold (–) in his A Sand County Almanac (), a classic text of the environmental movement.
There he argues that there is a critical need for a "new ethic," an "ethic dealing with human's relation to land and to the animals and plants which grow. Thinking Like a Planet: The Land Ethic and the Earth Ethic [J.
Baird Callicott] on urbanagricultureinitiative.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Bringing together ecology, evolutionary moral psychology, and environmental ethics, J. Baird Callicott counters the narrative of blame and despair that prevails in contemporary discussions of climate ethics and offers a fresh.
Published in as the finale to A Sand County Almanac, Aldo Leopold’s “Land Ethic” essay is a call for moral responsibility to the natural urbanagricultureinitiative.com its core, the idea of a land ethic is simply caring: about people, about land, and about strengthening the relationships between them.
FOR MORE THAN TWENTY YEARS, MY WIFE WAS ONE OF THE LONG-SUFFERING PEOPLE WHO WENT OUT on an elementary school playground to enforce the house rules on an unruly mob of first through sixth graders.