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The editors of the journal have been alerted to concerns over potential bias in opinions and bias in the choice of citation sources used in this article. We note that the authors stand by the content as published. Since the nature of the claims against the paper concern speculation and opinion, and not fraud or academic misconduct, the editors would like to issue an Expression of Concern to make readers aware that the approach to collating literature citations for this article was likely not systematic and may not reflect the spectrum of opinions on the issues covered by the article.

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Asking questions for science and defining problems for engineering 2.

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Developing and using models 3. Planning and carrying out investigations 4. Analyzing and interpreting data 5.

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Using mathematics and computational Scientific research paper search engine 6. Constructing explanations for science and designing solutions for engineering 7. Engaging in argument from evidence 8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information Throughout the discussion, we consider practices both of science and engineering.

In many cases, the practices in the two fields are similar enough that they can be discussed together. In other cases, however, they are considered separately.

Engaging in the practices of science helps students understand how scientific knowledge develops; such direct involvement gives them an appreciation of the wide range of approaches that are used to investigate, model, and explain the world.

Engaging in the practices of engineering likewise helps students understand the work of engineers, as well as the links between engineering and science. Scientific and Engineering Practices.

A Framework for K Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. The National Academies Press. Students may then recognize that science and engineering can contribute to meeting many of the major challenges that confront society today, such as generating sufficient energy, preventing and treating disease, maintaining supplies of fresh water and food, and addressing climate change.

Any education that focuses predominantly on the detailed products of scientific labor—the facts of science—without developing an understanding of how those facts were established or that ignores the many important applications of science in the world misrepresents science and marginalizes the importance of engineering.

Understanding How Scientists Work The idea of science as a set of practices has emerged from the work of historians, philosophers, psychologists, and sociologists over the past 60 years.

This work illuminates how science is actually done, both in the short term e. Seeing science as a set of practices shows that theory development, reasoning, and testing are components of a larger ensemble of activities that includes networks of participants and institutions [ 1011 ], specialized ways of talking and writing [ 12 ], the development of models to represent systems or phenomena [ ], the making of predictive inferences, construction of appropriate instrumentation, and testing of hypotheses by experiment or observation [ 16 ].

Our view is that this perspective is an improvement over previous approaches in several ways. First, it minimizes the tendency to reduce scientific practice to a single set of procedures, such as identifying and controlling variables, classifying entities, and identifying sources of error.

This tendency overemphasizes experimental investigation at the expense of other practices, such as modeling, critique, and communication.

In addition, when such procedures are taught in isolation from science content, they become the aims of instruction in and of themselves rather than a means of developing a deeper understanding of the concepts and purposes of science [ 17 ].

Page 44 Share Cite Suggested Citation: In reality, practicing scientists employ a broad spectrum of methods, and although science involves many areas of uncertainty as knowledge is developed, there are now many aspects of scientific knowledge that are so well established as to be unquestioned foundations of the culture and its technologies.

It is only through engagement in the practices that students can recognize how such knowledge comes about and why some parts of scientific theory are more firmly established than others.

Third, attempts to develop the idea that science should be taught through a process of inquiry have been hampered by the lack of a commonly accepted definition of its constituent elements.

Such ambiguity results in widely divergent pedagogic objectives [ 18 ]—an outcome that is counterproductive to the goal of common standards. The focus here is on important practices, such as modeling, developing explanations, and engaging in critique and evaluation argumentationthat have too often been underemphasized in the context of science education.

In particular, we stress that critique is an essential element both for building new knowledge in general and for the learning of science in particular [ 1920 ].

Traditionally, K science education has paid little attention to the role of critique in science. However, as all ideas in science are evaluated against alternative explanations and compared with evidence, acceptance of an explanation is ultimately an assessment of what data are reliable and relevant and a decision about which explanation is the most satisfactory.

Thus knowing why the wrong answer is wrong can help secure a deeper and stronger understanding of why the right answer is right.

How the Practices Are Integrated into Both Inquiry and Design One helpful way of understanding the practices of scientists and engineers is to frame them as work that is done in three spheres of activity, as shown in Figure In one sphere, the dominant activity is investigation and empirical inquiry.

In the second, the essence of work is the construction of explanations or designs using reasoning, creative thinking, and models.

Introduction

And in the third sphere, the ideas, such as the fit of models and explanations to evidence or the appropriateness of product designs, are analyzed, debated, and evaluated [ ]. At the left of the figure are activities related to empirical investigation.

In this sphere of activity, scientists determine what needs to be measured; observe phenomena; plan experiments, programs of observation, and methods of data collection; build instruments; engage in disciplined fieldwork; and identify sources of uncertainty.

For their part, engineers engage in testing that will contribute data for informing proposed designs. A civil engineer, for example, cannot design a new highway without measuring the terrain and collecting data about the nature of the soil and water flows.

The activities related to developing explanations and solutions are shown at the right of the figure. For scientists, their work in this sphere of activity is to draw from established theories and models and to propose extensions to theory or create new models.Through our research, we are continuing to enhance and refine the world's foremost search engine by aiming to scientifically understand the implications of those changes and address new challenges that they bring.

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