Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was ever heard of his ships again. This effort was rebuffed and later, as the Anglo-Spanish Wars intensified, Elizabeth I gave her blessing to further privateering raids against Spanish ports in the Americas and shipping that was returning across the Atlantic, laden with treasure from the New World. By this time, Spain had become the dominant power in the Americas and was exploring the Pacific Ocean, Portugal had established trading posts and forts from the coasts of Africa and Brazil to China, and France had begun to settle the Saint Lawrence River area, later to become New France. English overseas possessions InElizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration.
The Western Front quickly stabilized, with almost no movement of more than a few hundred yards. The greatest single expenditure on both sides was for artillery shells, the chief weapon in the war.
|Military history of Canada during World War II - Wikipedia||Especially afterthe North Sea region took over the role of the leading economic centre of Europe from the Mediterranean, which prior to this date, particularly in northern Italy, had been the most highly developed part of Europe. Great Britain, together with the Low Countries, profited more in the long run from the expansion of trade in the Atlantic and Asia than the pioneers of this trade, Spain and Portugal, fundamentally because of the success of the mainly privately owned enterprises in these two Northern countries in contrast to the arguably less successful state-owned economic systems in Iberia.|
|BBC - History - British History in depth: Britain, the Commonwealth and the End of Empire||More than 4 million houses had been destroyed or badly damaged; the result was an acute shortage of housing, especially after soldiers returned from the war. Commodity shortages meant the continuation of wartime rationing.|
Since the front was highly stable, both sides built elaborate railway networks that brought supplies within a mile or two of the front lines, with horse-drawn wagons used for the final deliveries.
In the ten-month battle at Verdun, the French and Germans fired some 10 million shells in all, weighing 1. Britain paid the war costs of most of its Allies until it ran out of money, then the US took over, funding those Allies and Britain as well. The War saw a decline of civilian consumption, with a major reallocation to munitions.
The annual output of artillery grew from 91 guns in to in Warplanes soared from in to inwhile the production of machine guns went from toMost of the energy supplies came from coal mines in Britain, where the issue was labour supply.
Critical however was the flow of oil for ships, lorries and industrial use. There were no oil wells in Britain so everything was imported. Intotal British consumption was million barrels, of which 85 percent was supplied by the United States, and 6 percent by Mexico.
Convoys and the construction of new tankers solved the German threat, while tight government controls guaranteed that all essential needs were covered. Archbold between May and September.
The only solution to the crisis lay with increased oil shipment from America. The close working relationship that evolved was in marked contrast to the feud between the government and Standard Oil years earlier.
In andthere was increased domestic demand for oil partly due to the cold winter that created a shortage of coal. Inventories and imported oil from Mexico were used to close the gap. In Januarythe U.
Fuel Administrator ordered industrial plants east of Mississippi to close for a week to free up oil for Europe. Inthe Royal Navy consumed 12, tons a month, but had a supply of 30, tons a month from the Anglo-Persian Oil Companyusing their oil wells in Persia.
They expanded by a third during the war, primarily to produce transports of the sort that German U-boats were busy sinking. But after the war, employment tumbled as the yards proved too big, too expensive, and too inefficient; in any case world demand was down.After World War II, the peoples of Africa and Asia increased their demands for independence.
The United Kingdom could no longer keep control of its colonies. The British economy continued to. The British Empire was known as "the empire on which the sun never sets" The British Empire was, at one time, referred to as "the empire on which the sun never sets" (a phrase previously used to describe the Spanish Empire and later to American influence in the world) because the empire's span.
turned out to be a chronic problem after the Second World War -- respectable growth rates sustained by better-than-average investment rates are hardly reassuring, especially insofar as the latter reflected not the intrinsic strengths of the British economy but rather the greater.
British Economy After WW2 The world’s first industrial power and better developed country was Great Britain.
Having the upper hand in the world economy, Britain was the target of other countries to compare themselves with and to hold a grudge against. After World War II, a certain degree of British influence was retained through the maintenance of imperial territories within the Empire, although safeguarding such interests would prove a costly exercise.
"An admirable state-of-the-arts report on what we know about how agriculture, population, technology, labor, industrial production, and public finance were affected by the war.