I was taught it in childhood and throughout my boyhood and youth. But when I abandoned the second course of the university at the age of eighteen I no longer believed any of the things I had been taught. Judging by certain memories, I never seriously believed them, but had merely relied on what I was taught and on what was professed by the grown-up people around me, and that reliance was very unstable. I remember that before I was eleven a grammar school pupil, Vladimir Milyutin long since deadvisited us one Sunday and announced as the latest novelty a discovery made at his school.
Tolstoy Farm Mohandas K. Gandhi attributes the success of the final phase of the satyagraha campaign in South Africa between and to the "spiritual purification and penance" afforded by the Tolstoy Farm.
The Tolstoy Farm was the second of its kind of experiments established by Gandhi. He devotes a considerable number of pages in Satyagraha in South Africa to the discussion of the day-to-day activities on the farm as the experiment appeared important to him, even though it had not enjoyed much "limelight".
It is located on the site of privately-owned Corobrik brick factory. The first, the Phoenix settlement in Natal, was inspired in by a single reading of John Ruskin's Unto This Last, a work that extolled the virtues of the simple life of love, labour, and the dignity of human beings.
Gandhi was not as personally involved in the daily running of the Phoenix settlement as he was to become in his stay of interrupted duration at the Tolstoy Farm which lasted for about four years.
In part this was because the political struggle had shifted to the Transvaal afterand he controlled it from its Johannesburg headquarters.
To a large extent Gandhi's more intimate involvement at the Tolstoy Farm coincided with the heightened tempo of the passive resistance campaign, and the development of the Gandhian philosophy of the perfect individual in a perfect new order. This essay will briefly discuss the historical context within which the Tolstoy Farm was founded, and explore the activities at the farm which led Gandhi to call the experiment a "cooperative commonwealth".
Much of this kind of implicit faith in this principled leader had been inspired by the fact that he had championed the cause of the Indians for over a decade when he could have opted for the less rigorous chores of being simply a lawyer. Gandhi's quiet and resourceful simplicity, his boundless energy, and his incredible staying power further enhanced his leadership.
But it was probably the force of his satyagraha philosophy that impelled his followers forward. They may not have fully understood all its revolutionary dimensions, but they realised that it was a new and potent force as just in its implementation as the causes for which it fought.
They captured its ethos, and were propelled by it in turn.
During the final phase of the campaign when the Tolstoy Farm was established Gandhi's own growth became noticeable.
During his three months of jail infirst at Volksrust and then at Pretoria, he read about thirty books. He made further acquaintance of the works of Leo Tolstoy and Henry D.
Thoreauamong others, and of the Hindu religion. Gandhi had read of Thoreau when he was a student in London, and had summarised the American's essay on Civil Disobedience in an issue of Indian Opinion in Now in jail, he eagerly explored Thoreau further.
But it was Tolstoy's writings that impressed him the most. The Russian's ideas about renouncing force as a means of opposition were akin to Gandhi's own thoughts, although he did not share Tolstoy's intense dislike for organised government.
This had stimulated his search for truth and non-violence in his own religion. It had set him upon a kind of thinking that was to mature into satyagraha later. Now in prison, he had another opportunity to read more deeply into the Russian author's works.
Prompted by his deeper appreciation of the Tolstoyan philosophy, Gandhi wrote in October the first of his four letters to the Russian.
He described in it the struggle of the Transvaal Indians, and asked him to air his views on the subject of morality. In subsequent correspondence Gandhi sent Tolstoy a copy of Joseph Doke's biography on himself, and an English translation of a pamphlet, Hind Swaraj Indian Home Rule he had written on board the ship bringing him from London to South Africa.
If Gandhi had hoped to draw the Russian into a full-fledged discourse on the ideas shared by the two, he was probably disappointed. He may not have been aware of Tolstoy's deteriorating health and his troubled life which had caused the Russian to abandon his wife a few days before he died on November 20, Once out of jail, Gandhi proceeded to London to present the Indian case before the British government, then engaged in deliberations concerning the formation of the Union of South Africa.
He talked to various persons, including Colonial Secretary Lord Crewe, without knowing whether he had been successful. Upon his return to South Africa he discovered he had not been.
But a more alarming discovery was that the passive resistance campaign had slackened most notably in the five months that he had been away.
A combination of factors had brought this about. The Transvaal government had put fear in the hearts of the Indians by deporting some of them to India; and it was not freely arresting the satyagrahis - thereby to further their cause - as it had done earlier.
The morale of the Indians had sagged dangerously low. Barely a hundred of the diehards among the satyagrahis were willing to court arrest.“A Confession and Other Religious Writings” by Leo Tolstoy is a book that I’ve carried around with me for a while.
I would pick it up, read bits of it intensely, and then forget about it. Then I would have to go back and restart the book/5. Taped Confession of Epistemology Taped Confession of Epistemology In , I was on a study abroad program as a freshman in college.
The trip was a six week tour of the Volga region of Russia, which also consisted of a three week cruise of the Volga River. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi set up a cooperative colony called Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg, South Africa, having been inspired by Tolstoy's urbanagricultureinitiative.com colony comprising 1, acres ( km 2) was funded by the Gandhian Herman Kallenbach and placed at the disposal of the satyagrahis from America.
Ernest Howard Crosby was a notable Tolstoyan in the United States. THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open. We were too tired to talk much. July 3, 1. G. Wilson Knight on Shakespeare. A. The Occult and the Mystical in Shakespeare.
I continue to be impressed by the work of the eminent literary critic and Shakespeare specialist G. Wilson Knight.
Tolstoy was born at Yasnaya Polyana, a family estate 12 kilometres ( mi) southwest of Tula, Russia, and kilometers ( mi) south of urbanagricultureinitiative.com was the fourth of five children of Count Nikolai Ilyich Tolstoy (–), a veteran of the Patriotic War of , and Countess Mariya Tolstaya (née Volkonskaya; –).After his parents died during his childhood, Tolstoy and his.